I used several resources the compile a list of 26 relevant questions surrounding Treaty Four. Each question was made onto its own “playing card” with the question on one side and the answer on the other side. The trivia game is for two to four players, and can be played in groups as well. A good idea would be to split the entire class into two to four teams. Once a question is asked, the first team to respond correctly wins that round. If no one comes up with the correct answer, move on to the next question. The winner of each round, or question, gets a puzzle piece. There are 11 puzzle pieces, representing the 11 treaties in Canada. Each treaty is one puzzle piece. This matters for Treaty 6 for instance, where the treaty was signed at different times, so they have different boundaries, although they are under the same treaty. In this activity, the entire treaty would count as one puzzle piece, although the year the treaty was signed would be specified on each piece. The object of the game is to collect as many puzzle pieces as possible. At the end of the game, all teams will join their puzzle pieces together to get a wider understanding of the treaty map.
For the most part, schools teach about political maps. I’ve found a blank map of Canada, with no provincial boundaries, which will be used for this activity, to emphasis the treaties. Not only is the trivia regarding Treaty 4 essential, but the added element of labelling treaties throughout Canada adds an extra piece of relevance.
|Lesson Plan:By: Kim Thue
Grade Level(s): Grade 4 Subject Areas: Treaty Education
|Overview / Essential Question: (Big Idea)
|Curriculum Outcomes: (the what)Treaty Ed:
TR41 : Analyze how relationships are affected when treaty promises are kept or broken.
SI42 : Examine the intent of treaty in relation to education.
HC43 : Explore the historical reasons why people entered into treaty
TPP44 : Examine the objectives of the First Nations and British Crown’s representatives in negotiating treaty
DR4.1: Correlate the impact of the land on the lifestyles and settlement patterns of the people of Saskatchewan.
DR4.2: Explain the relationship of First Nations and Métis peoples with the land.
DR4.3: Analyze the implications of the Treaty relationship in Saskatchewan.
PA4.3: Demonstrate an understanding of the First Nations system of governance.
|Curriculum Indicators: (the how)Treaty Ed:
– Identify treaty promises from the local treaty territory and the extent to which those treaty promises have been fulfilled
– Discuss the effect of unfulfilled treaty promises on relationships.
– Discuss why First Nations signatories believed there was a benefit to both European education and traditional ways of learning.
– Research the forms of education that First Nations people have experienced since the treaties were signed
– Examine how the disappearance of the buffalo and the loss of traditional hunting and trapping territories created a need for First Nations to enter into treaties.
– Examine the benefits each signatory hoped to achieve
– Analyze the challenges and opportunities associated with negotiating treaties (e.g., communication among groups, transportation, participation, preservation of language and cultural practices).
– Make inferences about why people in Saskatchewan settled particular locations, including settlement patterns before and after coming together of First Nations and European peoples using a variety of maps (e.g., near waterways, sources of water, rail lines, natural resources, low population density in rural areas).
– Conduct an inquiry investigating how residents of Saskatchewan came to occupy the land that is now our province (e.g., First Nations, early Europeans, and Métis).
– Investigate the traditional worldviews of First Nations peoples prior to European contact regarding land as an animate object and sustaining life force.
– Research traditional lifestyles of First Nations communities and peoples prior to European contact (e.g., hunting, gathering, movement of people to follow food sources).
– Compare the traditional views of land and culture of the Aboriginal peoples of Saskatchewan with those of the railway developers.
– Assess the impact of historic loss of land on First Nations and Métis people
– Investigate the process by which decisions were made about the location of reserve lands in Saskatchewan.
– Locate Treaty areas within Saskatchewan and locate reserves within the Treaty area of the school.
– Investigate conditions which precipitated Treaty negotiations in Saskatchewan.
– Research Treaty provisions, including the spirit and intent of Treaties as well as material considerations.
– Assess the benefits of Treaties to all Saskatchewan people.
– Research the structures of governance in First Nations communities (e.g., local band council, tribal council, Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, Assembly of First Nations).
|Set: (hook; “engage”)Big Question: What is in the Treaty Four document and how was it agreed upon?
Read: The Treaty Four document.
In addition, provide other resources for students to come to a better understanding of Treaty 4 (Treaty Research Report from Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada)
|Development: (content to learn; possibly one of “explore, explain, elaborate”)Do the students understand what treaties are? Do they know the treaty land they are currently on? What are the agreements that were made in the treaty? Who came together to agree upon the treaty? Have the promises and agreements been upheld as far as they know? The information prior information from the treaty and other documents will help students gain a better understanding of the treaty and treaty making process. Throughout the process of reading about Treaty 4, grade 4 students will begin to get an idea of promises kept or broken, communication issues, the hopes of each party when signing the treaties and more.|
|Activity: (summary activity; “evaluate” or assessment for/of learning)-Split into teams. The teacher asks the first trivia question regarding Treaty 4, and the first team to answer correctly receives a puzzle piece, which is in the shape of one of the 11 treaties. The game continues until all 26 questions are asked, or one team wins all 11 puzzle pieces. Students will answer questions from knowledge gained in prior research of Treaty 4, or from handouts they have created from research that they could use during the game, depending on their level of understanding at the time.|
|Assessment:Through the trivia game, can get a good sense of understanding of Treaty 4. It also opens up deeper discussion passed the game on some of the “facts” inside the game. Example – is the promise of MAINTAINING a school on each reserve being kept? Is $5 to each band member enough?
Treaty Four document – http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/documents/Native/docs-treatyfour.htm
Revisiting the meaning of Treaty Number Four in southern Saskatchewan – Danette Starr-Spaeth.
Treaty Research Report – http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028685/1100100028687
Here is a list of the 26 questions I made for the game. This list can also be ever-evolving of course. Questions can be added and taken away depending on your students understanding.
What was the date of the 1st signing of Treaty 4?
September 15, 1874
How many days of negotiations took place before Treaty 4 was signed?
8 days after the arrival of the parties.
What parties were involved in the initial signing of Treaty 4? Queen Victoria and the Cree & Salteaux First Nations.
Did any other tribes sign Treaty 4 at a later date?
Yes, the Assiniboine.
What were the “numbered treaties”, including Treaty 4, shaped after?
The Robinson Treaties of 1850
What were treaties represented to First Nations people as?
The Queens protection against loss of land and livelihood.
Who was the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba and the North West Territories who first recommended treaties with western Tribes?
What area of Canada is Treaty Four located in?
Southern Saskatchewan and stretching up to East Central Saskatchewan and into Manitoba. It also extends into the South East corner of Alberta.
Why is Treaty 4 in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba?
Provincial boundaries did not come into existence until 1905, 27 years after Treaty 4 was signed.
Where was Treaty 4 signed?
What was “in the way” when Alexander Morris presented the terms for the treaty for the second time?
The First Nations people hesitation to work with the Hudsons Bay Company and unrest over the Hudson’s Bay Company selling their land.
Where the terms initially agreed upon in Treaty 4 the same as Treaty 3?
What differences are there in Treaty 4 compared to Treaty 3?
Four headman were allowed in each band instead of three. $750 yearly was expended for “powder, shot, ball & twine” in Treaty Four, compared to $1500 in Treaty 3 for the purchase of ammunition, twine and nets.
What did the First Nations Tribes have to concede in signing the Treaty 4 document?
Cede, release, surrender and yield up to the Government of the Dominion of Canada all their rights, titles and privileges, to the lands included within the Treaty 4 boundaries.
How large were the reserves that the Queen promised First Nations people?
One square mile for each family of 5.
What was each Chief promised?
$25, a coat and the Queens silver medal.
What was each Headman promised?
Not exceeding 4, they were promised $15 and a coat.
Every other man, woman and child was promised what?
What was and still is paid annually from the government to the First Nations people as apart of the treaty signing for the territory ceded?
Chief $25, Headman $15, every man, woman and child, $5.
What did the Queen, Her Majesty promise to maintain on every reserve?
What articles did the government promise to supply to each band?
Two hoes, one spade, one scythe and one axe for every family so actually cultivating, and enough seed wheat, barley, oats and potatoes to plant such land as they have broken up.
One plough and two harrows for every ten families.
One yoke of oxen, one bull, four cows, a chest of ordinary carpenter’s tools, five hand saws, five augers, one cross-cut saw, one pit-saw, the necessary files and one grindstone.
How much land did the signing of Treaty Four open up?
Approximately 75,000 square miles.
How many Cree and Saulteaux chiefs signed the original treaty?
Was the pipe ceremony recognized by the commissioners at the Treaty 4 signing?
No, a signal of miscommunication.
Who spoke on behalf of the Cree at the Treaty 4 signing?
Who spoke on behalf of the Saulteaux at the Treaty 4 signing?
Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. 2010. Saskatchewan Curriculum Social Studied 4. Retrieved from: https://www.edonline.sk.ca/bbcswebdav/library/curricula/English/Social_Studies/Social_ Studies_Education_4_2010.pdf
Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. 2013. Treaty Education Outcomes and Indicators. Retrieved from: https://www.edonline.sk.ca/bbcswebdav/library/materials/english/docs/Treaty%20Educat ion%20Outcomes%20%26%20Indicators%20-%20Feb%2021%202013.pdf
Canada History. 2013. First Nations Treaties: 1874 Treaty Four. Retrieved from: http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/documents/Native/docs-treatyfour.htm
Starr-Spaeth, D. (2002). Revisiting the meaning of treaty number four in southern saskatchewan (Order No. MQ71364). Available from Dissertations & Theses @ University of Regina; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (305562200). Retrieved from https://login.libproxy.uregina.ca:8443/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.ureg ina.ca:2048/docview/305562200?accountid=13480
Government of Canada. 2010. Treaty Research Report: Treaty Four (1874). Retrieved from: http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028685/1100100028687
Government of Canada. (2013). Treaty Texts: Treaty No. 4. Retrieved from: https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028689/1100100028690